Steel & Its Importance
Steel is required everywhere directly or indirectly throughout every process of life.
According to the census of 2001, the world has a total population of 6-billion out of which India’s population is 1.02 billion which is expected to increase a growth by at least 20% in the next census.
The total production of finished carbon steel in the country is 30.11 million tones in 2001-02 as compared to 14.33 million tones in 1991-92, indicating an increase of 110.12%. The Indian iron & steel industry has witnessed unprecedented growth in the last 10-years as because of continued growth in the steel intensive sectors of manufacturing & construction in particular.
The activities of every associated sector like mine owners, sponge iron & other reduction line, induction furnace, rolling mills etc. are independent & profitable. Hence, there is very bright future of integrated steel plants in India in view of the growing demand of steel everyday.
The high share of the secondary sector in finished steel production is largely due to substantial supplies of primary steel, the basic feed material from the main producers for conversion to needed shapes by rolling.
In India steel making follows crude process in which heat loss is calculated as very high. The common routes for this process are sponge iron & blast furnace. Blast furnace is badly affected due to non-availability of coking coal which has to be imported. Research is going on for use of non-coking coal in blast furnaces. No Plants are running in the Country using non-coking coal & depends on imported coking coal only. For this reason, this route is not feasible.
In the process of sponge iron the material has to cool below 2000C for separation of non-mag, hence, this method is also not acceptable as it is costlier to make quality steel.
These days, cheap & widely accepted process is Midrex & Corex in which material will go directly up to melting & heat loss will be bare minimum. We make good quality steel economically by adopting this type of process.